She also found a that more women participated in troubles-talk than men and b that women were recipients of more indirect complaints because they were seen as more supportive in general than men. Boxer claimed that, while the explicit assumption about complaining was that it constitutes negative speech behavior, tacit assumptions proved otherwise.
They were students at five universities in the Kanto area. To collect the data, a discourse completion instrument DCT with twelve complaint situations was used. The respondents were allowed to opt out or to give a non-verbal response as well. The respondents tallied two things: a the strategies used and b the combinations of interactions. Molloy and Shimura found that the two most common strategies were a to notify and b to seek redress.
The corpus had at the time over 2, interactions recorded. The focus of the study was on what was necessary for fitting in and becoming an integrated member of the workplace as a community of practice. Holmes' paper examines the positive discourse strategies of small talk and humor; it also illustrates how these provide a challenge for workers with an intellectual disability. Then the analysis turns to the more negatively affective area of workplace whinges and complaints. Holmes specifically examines how whinges and complaints may present difficulties to those from non-English-speaking backgrounds.
The study provides a basis for developing useful teaching materials for those entering workplaces for the first time. Drawing on Politeness Theory and the Community of Practice model, Daly, Holmes, Newton, and Stubbe examined the uses and functions of the expletive 'fuck' in interaction between workers in a New Zealand soap factory work team. They extensively recorded the factory team in their daily interactions to obtain a corpus of thirty five hours of authentic workplace talk from which they selected a small number of paradigmatic interactions for discussion in their paper.
Particular attention was given to the way in which the expletive fuck was used in two face threatening speech acts, a direct complaints and refusals, and b its contrasting function in the speech act of whinging.
The analysis focused on the complex socio-pragmatic functions of fuck and its role as an indicator of membership in a specific community of practice. Daly, Holmes, Newton, and Stubbe demonstrate how the speech act is accomplished over a series of different turns. They illustrated the slippery nature of the concept of politeness, in that they found the expletive fuck to serve as a positive politeness or solidarity marker when confined to members of a particular team within this factory. Kumagai defined complaint conversations as conversations that involve two parties with distinct communicative orientations: a the complainer and b the complainee.
She distinguished complaint conversations from quarrels in that the former involves an effort by the complainee to minimize the confrontation while, with the latter, the two confront each other on a par. She took the two conversations she used for her study from a corpus she had collected earlier in In the first conversation the complainer was a male shopkeeper in downtown Tokyo and the complainee a male university student attempting to conduct a survey.
The complainer's mother and wife also participated in an effort to keep the peace when the shopkeeper returned to the shop to find the student there after he had told him he could not do his survey there. In the second conversation, one teenage girl was accusing the other of being late for their appointment.
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Kumagai focused on these two complaint conversations and discussed how the repetition of utterances within such conversations could function as a conversational strategy to:. In particular she focused on uses of repetition, both exact repetition as well as modified repetition or paraphrase, of utterances made earlier in the same conversation.
Kumagai's results supported Tannen's claim that repetition is a major means for creating speaker involvement and not merely a matter of redundancy. They performed a rigorous statistical analysis and found wide idiosyncratic variation in response patterns.
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Some respondents were more fine-tuned in their selection of speech acts relevant to the situation in question while others were less so. Molloy and Shimura raised numerous questions as to why this was the case, but they did not provide any preferred explanation. To sum up, the review of the literature related to complaints whether direct DC or indirect IC , and whether followed by troubles telling or not revealed three major areas that had previously been studied: a functions of complaints, b responses to complaints, and c conversational strategies used by complainers and complainees for complaining or troubles-telling.
According to literature, the functions of complaints are threefold: a to further conversation, b to build relationships, and c to establish solidarity Boxer, ; Boxer In addition, there were four conversational strategies which were used by complainers and complainees: a expressing emotions, b dealing with complaint situation, c providing rhetoric for argument, and d manipulating conversational development Kumagai The literature reviewed in the previous section clearly shows the importance of the study of complaints.
To date, no study has addressed this speech act in Farsi. As such, the present study was an attempt at describing the salient conversational strategies that are used in the speech act of complaining in Farsi See Appendix A for a summary of conversational strategies used in complaints. The study specifically focused on the role of complainers' sex, age, perceived situational seriousness, and social class in relation to their complaining behavior.
A total of subjects all of them complainers in their spontaneous conversations comprised the sample of the study.
They belonged to different age groups, social classes, and sexes. Table 1 represents the frequency analysis for the subjects of the study. Table 1: Frequency analysis for subjects of the study. From the subjects of the study, were male As for the age groups, subjects The social class of subjects was identified by such factors, as total monthly income, neighborhood of residence, brand of private car, possession of private cellphones, and possession and type of private house.
The data for the present study were collected by 25 field workers who observed and tape-recorded the subjects in spontaneous conversation. The field workers were all master's students majoring in Teaching English as a Foreign Language TEFL who had already passed their sociolinguistics and discourse analysis courses. They used hidden tape-recorders to record the spontaneous conversations of the subjects. They were instructed to tell the truth about the recordings to the subjects after they had been recorded, and to ask their permission for using the tape scripts in the study.
Those subjects who did not permit the use of their recorded conversations were discarded from the study, and the respective tape scripts were erased. The field workers assigned each tape script a unique reference number and filled out a checklist one for each tape script that provided the data for the study See Appendix B. The field workers also indicated their evaluation of the degree to which they thought the complainers perceived the situation to be serious, and provided any comments that could make the coding of the data easier.
The data collected in this way were then submitted to the SPSS Frequency analysis was conducted to identify the proportion and percentage of subjects in the different subgroups of the sample See table 1 above.
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The Mann-Whitney U Test which is the non-parametric counterpart for independent samples t-test was used to analyze measure the effect of subjects sex on their use of conversational strategies in the speech act of complaining. The Kruskal Wallis H Test which is the nonparametric alternative to a one-way between-groups ANOVA was also performed to analyze the effects of subjects' social class, age, and perceived situational seriousness on their use of conversational strategies in the speech act of complaining.
The first question addressed by the study was "Do male and female complainers differ in terms of their use of conversational strategies in their complaints? The four strategies under study were: 1 expressing emotions, 2 dealing with complaint situation, 3 providing rhetoric for argument, and 4 manipulating development of conversation. As for strategy 1 i. Figure 1: Comparison of mean ranks for strategy use by males and females.
Mean rank comparisons figure 1 above showed that males made use of the first strategy much more than females did. Females, however, made use of the second and fourth strategies much more than their male counterparts did. In other words, males expressed their emotions more openly than females, while females dealt with the complaint situation and provided rhetoric for argument more easily than males.
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The second question addressed by the study was whether there was a significant difference in the complainers' use of conversational strategies across different social class groups. To answer this question, the data were analyzed by means of a Kruskal Wallis H Test which is the nonparametric alternative to a one-way between-groups analysis of variance.
Table three manifests the results of this analysis.
As it can be concluded from table 2, complainers' social class related to their use of the first and the second conversational strategies in a statistically significant way. Figure 2: Comparison of mean ranks for strategy use by subjects across social classes. Low class subjects expressed their emotions less than mid class and high class subjects.
High class subjects, on the other hand, expressed more emotions that both mid class and low class subjects. Mid class subjects stood in between. As for dealing with the complaint situation, high class subjects used the strategy much more than both the mid class and the low class subjects. The difference between the mid class and the low class subjects, however, was very small. Yet another question addressed by the present study was whether there was any statistically significant difference between subjects' use of conversational strategies across different age groups.
Here again, a Kruskal Wallis H Test was performed. The results of this analysis are tabulated in table 4 below. In this case, age group was a factor only in relation to the third strategy i. In connection to the other three strategies, age was not a significant factor. As is evident from graph 3 below, the only age group that had a mean rank much grater than the other groups in connection to the third strategy was the 'old' age group.
Figure 3: Comparison of mean ranks for strategy use by subjects across age groups. The last question addressed by the present study was whether complainers' perceived situational seriousness affected their use of conversational strategies in any significant way. One again, a Kruskal Wallis H Test was performed. The results of the Kruskal Wallis H Test are presented in table 5 below.
The results of data analysis indicated that perceived situational seriousness was a factor only in relation to the last conversational strategy i. As for topics with a high level of perceived situational seriousness, the subjects of the study used fewer repetitions. Topics with a medium level of perceived situational seriousness stood in between.
The comparisons of mean ranks for the conversational strategies are illustrated in figure 4 below. Figure 4: Comparison of mean ranks for strategy use by subjects in relation to perceived situational seriousness.